A Taste of Honey Is Worse Than None At All: Bee-Harming Pesticides Are Found in Most Honey

  by Hope Henderson   Honey bees on every inhabited continent face exposure to neonicotinoid pesticides, which growing evidence suggests are a culprit in the decline in bee populations. In a study published this month in the academic journal Science, researchers surveyed honey from almost 200 locations worldwide, and found that 75% of samples contained these pesticides. Neonicotinoids are the most commonly used class of insecticides in the world. They are meant to damage the nervous system of plant-eating pests like aphids in order to protect crops, but studies have shown that neonicotinoids can also harm bees: they are implicated in slowing growth, reducing immune function, lowering ability to forage for nectar and pollen, decreasing chances of surviving winter, and reducing reproduction. Honey is bees’ main food source. These findings indicate that bees are not just being exposed to these pesticides occasionally, depending on where they forage on a given day, but that they are subject to chronic exposure through diet. The level of neonicotinoids found in nearly half of the honey samples was within the range known to harm bees. 55% of all samples contained multiple neonicotinoid pesticides, bringing to light the need for studies that look at the possible additive effects of being exposed to multiple pesticides at once. The good news: you can keep adding honey to your tea for now. All neonicotinoid concentrations were below the limits for safe human consumption according to current US and EU regulations.   Original article: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/358/6359/109 Additional sources: https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms12459 http://science.sciencemag.org/content/336/6079/351 http://science.sciencemag.org/content/356/6345/1393 http://science.sciencemag.org/content/356/6345/1395 Please follow and like...

Science, Summer, and the Significance of Sweating

By: Kaitlyn Powers As inconvenient and uncomfortable as it might be, sweating, also known as perspiring, has important biological underpinnings that help the body regulate its temperature. Each human has about 2 to 4 million sweat glands, which begin to fully activate during puberty. These glands receive signals from the autonomic nervous system, which manages actions that are inherently involuntary (like the heart beating or blood vessels widening). Once these signals are transferred with the help of a specific neurotransmitter known as acetylcholine, the clear, salty liquid known as sweat is sent through ducts to the skin. While sweat is commonly associated with bad smells and unflattering clothing stains, in reality sweat is odorless and mostly colorless. Sweat, when mixed with bacteria on the skin’s surface, produces the smell people refer to, and most times the “yellow underarm stains are caused by your apocrine glands, which contain proteins and fatty acids and thus make underarm secretions thick and milky” (Live Science). Despite the less desirable effects of sweating, the process is crucial to helping a person’s body stay cool and avoid the danger of overheating. Anhidrosis, a condition in which individuals do not sweat, can cause harmful health consequences including heat exhaustion or heatstroke. When a person does sweat (whether it be from the heat, physical activity, etc.), however, the body loses fluid. Thus, it’s important to remember, especially in the summer, to refill your body with fluid to compensate for the loss from sweating. Without enough fluid to function correctly, the body can become dehydrated. With the average person needing up to 3 quarts of water on a...

Know Science at the March for Science

by Chiara Bertipaglia, Postdoctoral Research Scientist at Columbia University and KnowScience editor   Yesterday, Saturday 22nd April 2017, on Earth Day, Know Science marched together with thousands of protesters at the March for Science in New York City. We are incredibly proud to have joined such a big event. We felt relieved to be part of a lively community of science supporters that care about science and realize how fundamental it is to society. Following the statement issued by our founder and president Dr. Simona Giunta, we manifested to express our deep concern about recent political orders that undermine the independence of scientific research and jeopardize scientific funding. We hope that all the science supporters that joined the satellite marches in more than 600 cities from all 7 continents have been successful in shaking the conscience of those that get to decide about science funding.   Please follow and like...

RAGE AGAINST THE VACCINES

VACCINES, AMONG URBAN LEGENDS AND COLLECTIVE PSYCHOSIS by Alessandro Zancla, MD   An anti-vaccination philosophy has spread for long among people, supported by blogs and websites that have taken advantage of people’s fears and susceptibility. As a consequence of this, we may risk destroying the progress reached in more than two hundred years of scientific research. This anti-vaccination attitude thrives thanks to general disinformation, a false sense of safety against infectious diseases and lack of historical memory, and it is starting to produce its results: in some areas of developed countries vaccine coverage levels risk being insufficient to guarantee adequate protection. Maybe we forgot too quickly that not many years ago diseases such as Diphtheria, Poliomyelitis, Pertussis and Rubella were a daily hazard, and so were the deaths they would cause and the serious consequences they would leave in the survivors (mainly children). Perhaps we physicians have some responsibility in this too. We evidently failed to reassure and inform the public proficiently, but believe me when I say it is terribly hard to speak convincingly against fears and persuasions that are stuck in the deepest irrational psychological sphere of mankind, especially when people are not willing to get informed. Sometimes a doctor proposing a vaccination is treated like a salesman you quickly want to get rid of. Trust me, it is not nice at all. When a doctor proposes a vaccine to a patient he only does so because he believes that it is useful and that the risks-to-benefits ratio is favorable to the vaccination, otherwise he would not.   I think it is time to clear a few...

Genetic loot transformed little viruses into giants

by Giorgia Guglielmi Giant viruses are the sperm whales of the microscopic world, dozens of times larger than typical viruses. They’re also richer in genes and much more complex—so much so, in fact, that scientists have speculated whether they evolved from ancient single-celled organisms. But the discovery of a novel group of giant viruses, reported today in Science, indicates that was likely not the case. These mammoth viruses, named Klosneuviruses, started out similar in size to their tiny, simpler brethren, and increased in complexity by gradually pilfering genes from the cells they infected. Compared to other known viruses, the newfound giants contain a more complete set of molecules able to translate genetic instructions into proteins. The researchers found that the genes that produce these protein-making molecules do not derive from an individual organism but rather from several single-celled algae—Klosneuviruses’ favorite hosts. This suggests that, over the course of evolution, Klosneuviruses—and probably other giant viruses—repeatedly gained new genes from the cells they took over. Over billions of years, this genetic larceny turned them into something unique: a cell-like virus that straddles the line between living and non-living.   Publication: Frederik Schulz, Natalya Yutin, Natalia N. Ivanova, Davi R. Ortega, Tae Kwon Lee, Julia Vierheilig, Holger Daims, Matthias Horn, Michael Wagner, Grant J. Jensen, Nikos C. Kyrpides, Eugene V. Koonin, Tanja Woyke. Giant viruses with an expanded complement of translation system components. Science, 2017; 356 (6333): 82 http://science.sciencemag.org/content/356/6333/82     Giorgia Guglielmi is a graduate student in the MIT Program in Science Writing and a freelance science journalist based in Cambridge, MA. She received a PhD in Biology from the European Molecular...

Zika hijacks host cells’ skeleton, persists in a wide range of tissues for weeks

By Giorgia Guglielmi       Scientists moved one step closer to understanding how Zika virus takes hold of host cells, and where and for how long it lurks inside the body. A new study, published in Cell Reports, showed that Zika reshapes the cell’s skeleton to fortify hollow structures where it makes daughter viruses. When scientists used a drug that makes the cell’s structural fibers immovable, the virus was unable to make copies of itself. These drugs might provide a therapeutic option against Zika. To develop new Zika therapies, it’s crucial to know where and when the virus is present within the organism. To address this issue, researchers studied Zika’s spread in infected macaques. The results are detailed in PLOS Pathogens. Zika infected a wide range of tissues, including peripheral nervous system, joints, and muscles, and it persisted in those tissues up to five weeks. What’s more, Zika was found in the reproductive tract of infected animals. The virus’ persistence in reproductive organs might be key to its sexual transmission. It could also explain why Zika infection during pregnancy is associated with crippling birth defects such as abnormally small heads, a condition known as microcephaly.   Giorgia Guglielmi is a graduate student in the MIT Program in Science Writing and a freelance science journalist based in Cambridge, MA. She received a PhD in Biology from the European Molecular Biology Laboratory in Heidelberg, Germany, where she studied how embryos get their final shape.   Please follow and like...
Social Media Auto Publish Powered By : XYZScripts.com
Follow by Email
Facebook
Facebook
Google+
http://knowscience.org/category/in-the-news">
SHARE